# ERTP Introduction

Beta status

The Agoric platform is at the beta stage. It is in the process of being formally evaluated for vulnerabilities, and is undergoing security treatment and hardening to support mainnet-1 launch. Do not use for production purposes.

ERTP (Electronic Rights Transfer Protocol) is Agoric's token standard for digital assets in JavaScript. Using ERTP, you can easily create a wide variety of digital assets, all of which are transferred exactly the same way and with exactly the same security properties.

ERTP uses object capabilities to enforce access control. If your program has a reference to an object, it can call methods on that object. If it doesn't have a reference, it can't.

# Creating assets with ERTP

In ERTP, mints create digital assets. Access to an asset's mint lets you create more digital assets of that kind. You can then store new assets in a payment or a purse.

  • Payments: Assets you intend to move between purses or to other destinations.
  • Purses: Store assets until you withdraw them into a payment for use

To send assets in ERTP:

  1. Withdraw them from a purse. This creates a payment.
  2. Send this payment to a recipient object as a message.

To receive assets in ERTP:

  1. Create a purse for the asset kind you'll receive. Note: You do not need access to the kind's mint to do this.
  2. Receive the message with the payment and deposit the payment in your purse.

# Security properties

An ERTP purse has a deposit method which takes a payment as its argument. It first checks that the payment is genuine and the same asset kind as the purse (any individual purse or payment can only hold one kind of asset, which is set on their creation. So a purse might hold Quatloos, meaning it couldn't hold Moola or any other non-Quatloo asset). Note: Quatloos and Moola are both imaginary currencies.

If everything passes the checks, the assets move from the payment to the purse. If there's a problem, it throws an error.

After a successful deposit, ERTP guarantees:

  • The payment is consumed and unavailable for later use.
  • The purse contains the total of what it held before plus the payment's full content.
    • For example, deposit of a 3 Quatloos payment into a purse that already has 7 Quatloos updates the purse's balance to 10 Quatloos.

When the deposit() call throws an error (something goes wrong), ERTP guarantees:

  • The alleged payment is in the same state as before the call.
  • The purse is in the same state as before the call.

In other words, a failed attempt to deposit a 3 Quatloo payment in a 7 Quatloo purse means the payment continues to exist and hold 3 Quatloos, and the purse continues to hold 7 Quatloos.

# Issuers and mints

Other key ERTP components are:

  • Mints: Make new digital assets as a new Payment. Mints only make one kind of asset (these can be currencies, objects for use in games, property rights, etc. In these docs, we use an imaginary currency, Quatloos, for our examples). We refer to that kind as a mint's Brand. So if a mint issues Quatloos, it's a Quatloo brand mint. Only mints can issue new digital assets. To mint new assets of a particular kind, you must have a reference to that kind's mint.

  • Issuers: Create empty purses and manipulate and operate on payments. Issuers verify and move digital assets and are the authority on contents of payments and purses using their brand.

An issuer's special admin facet is a Mint, and that Mint and Issuer have a one-to-one relationship. With a reference to an Issuer, you can check the validity of a payment in that issuer's assets; i.e. If you have a reference to the Quatloos issuer, you can validate any payment made in Quatloos. You can also claim the payment either as a new payment to yourself or a purse you control.

Issuers should be obtained from a trusted source and then relied upon as the decider of whether an untrusted payment is valid.

Note: There is a one-to-one correspondence between a brand, a mint, and an issuer. In other words:

  • A mint associated with a Quatloos brand can only create new Quatloos and is the only mint that can create new Quatloos.
  • An issuer associated with a Quatloos mint can only operate on Quatloos asset holders. It is the only issuer that can operate on them.

# Amounts

Amounts describe digital assets without having any value of their own. Anyone can make one, and they can be sent freely to anyone since they convey no underlying value. They have two parts:

  • Brand: An unforgeable object identity for the digital asset's kind, such as an object that represents Quatloos.
  • Value: How much/many of the asset. Fungible values are natural numbers and represented as BigInts. Non-fungible values are strings or objects representing attributes of the asset (say, a theater ticket's row and seat positions).

Note: fungible means any item in a set can be used. For example, for change for a dollar, any four quarters work. Non-fungible means specific items in a set must be used. For example, theater tickets are not all the same, and it matters if you get third row center or second balcony far left (and affects what you're willing to trade for it).

# AmountMath

Issuers must be able to deposit and withdraw assets from a purse. This requires being able to add and subtract digital assets. They use a set of AmountMath functions.

In addition to math operations, AmountMath functions check on their arguments' brands, throwing an error if the wrong brand was used.

An AmountMath only works on assets of their associated brand and issuer. There can be many copies of the AmountMath for a particular brand and its issuer.

# Next Steps

If you are Getting Started, you should go to the Introduction to Zoe.

If you've finished the Getting Started material, you should go to the ERTP Guide for a fuller explanation of ERTP concepts, including ones not covered in this Introduction.